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The Universe represented as multiple disk-shaped slices across time, which passes from left to right.

Science (from the Latin word scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

The earliest roots of science can be traced to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in around 3500 to 3000 BCE. Their contributions to mathematics, astronomy, and medicine entered and shaped Greek natural philosophy of classical antiquity, whereby formal attempts were made to explain events of the physical world based on natural causes. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, knowledge of Greek conceptions of the world deteriorated in Western Europe during the early centuries (400 to 1000 CE) of the Middle Ages but was preserved in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age. The recovery and assimilation of Greek works and Islamic inquiries into Western Europe from the 10th to 13th century revived natural philosophy, which was later transformed by the Scientific Revolution that began in the 16th century as new ideas and discoveries departed from previous Greek conceptions and traditions. The scientific method soon played a greater role in knowledge creation and it was not until the 19th century that many of the institutional and professional features of science began to take shape.

Main branches of science

Selected branches of natural science

Selected branches of formal science

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In the news

21 February 2019 –
A fossil from a new species of tyrannosaur named Moros intrepidus is discovered in the U.S. state of Utah. Scientists are using the find to better understand how Tyrannosaurus rex evolved during the Cretaceous period. (National Geographic)
Scientists announce that the Megachile pluto (Wallace's giant bee), the world's largest bee, has been rediscovered in North Maluku, Indonesia, after no confirmed sightings since 1981. The first ever pictures and videos are taken of the rare species. (BBC)
7 February 2019 –
NASA scientists report the MarCO satellites, two CubeSats in deep space, have lost contact with Planet Earth. (CNN)
30 January 2019 – Cancer research
An Israeli team of scientists claim to have developed a cure for cancer. This claim is criticized by other scientists, who say it is likely faked. (Times of Israel)

Selected branches of social science

Selected branches of applied science


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